How to Perform a Job Analysis

Every company has different positions that are going to have to be filled in by the best candidates. If ever there’s a particular position that’s open, then it’s up to those in Human Resources and management to find the people who are well-suited for them. And there are a lot of people out there who are more than willing to become candidates.

However, you can’t really hire a person for a position if you don’t even know what qualifications the position being offered requires. This is why this article will teach you how to do a proper job analysis that will help you identify a particular job’s duties and requirements.

Steps in doing a job analysis

Job analysis is the process of collecting information related to various aspects of a particular job. So if you would like to learn how to do a proper job needs analysis, then follow these steps to help you:

Information collection

This is the first step of job analysis where you collect the required information related to the various aspects of a particular job. This kind of information can be obtained through different methods such as interviews, observations, questionnaires, or even critical incidents. It is associated with the preparation of plans and program outlines as well as the assignment of responsibilities.

Go over background information

This is the step where the information that was previously gathered is then reviewed to create organizational charts, the current position descriptions and specifications, and the manual charts and processes. All of these are used to help perform a detailed assessment of any kind of job.

Selection of representative position to be analyzed

Analyzing every single job one at a time is a process that’s both complex and time-consuming. This is the reason why only a representative sample of jobs is selected for the purpose of doing a detailed analysis. In this step, the job analyst can create an investigative report so that he or she can determine which organization managers or employees are going to require a job analysis. He or she should also determine the purpose as to why a certain job has to be analyzed in the first place.

Analysis of job through collection of data

During this phase of the job analysis process, a job analyst obtains all of the necessary data that’s related to the jobs that need to be analyzed. This kind of information is collected through the activities of the job, required employee behaviors, working conditions, the qualities and human traits of ideal candidates, abilities required to perform the job, and various other aspects of the positions being analyzed. This data can be collected through observations, questionnaires, or interviews.

Develop the job description

This is the step of the job analysis where you’re going to create the job description based on all of the information that you were able to collect from the previous steps. This is the written statement template that describes all of the prominent characteristics of the job along with its duties, location, and the degree of risk that’s involved.

Develop job specification

This is the last step of the job analysis process where a detailed specification work statement is prepared to show the minimum qualifications of the job that needs to be filled. This is basically a summary of the personal qualities, traits, knowledge, and background required to perform the specific tasks of a particular job. It also involves the physical and psychological attribute of the person that wishes to apply for it.

Do I need a consultant for job analysis?

You don’t really need to have a consultant during the job analysis. However, consultants may just provide you with a more independent and unbiased analysis of the job that you wish to open up for hire. Their analysis may not be affected by the internal politics of the organization. Also, you may need the services of a consultant in the event that you’ll have to do your analysis in a relatively short period of time. A consultant in this situation would be better able to concentrate on the job analysis task as their main function while employees continue to perform their regular duties and responsibilities for the company.

Positives and negatives of job descriptions

An employee job description is a written statement template that describes the duties and responsibilities, as well as the required qualities and qualifications, needed for a particular job or position. The description is based on objective information obtained through a proper job analysis, an understanding of the skills and abilities required to take on the job’s duties and responsibilities, and the needs of the organization. Basically, what a job description does is spell out all of the responsibilities of a particular job. Here are some positives and negatives that will help you determine the value of a good job description:

Positives

  • A proper job description shows the direction your company is heading toward and it should tell the candidate where he or she fits within the organization. Aligning the people you employ with the items on your goal sheet and vision and mission statement can only mean success for your business. As a leader, you can assure the efficient function of all of the different positions and roles needed to help your customers and grow your business.
  • Customer service job descriptions can set clear expectations regarding what you expect from those you’re planning on hiring. This is the first document that you look at if your employees aren’t doing what you want them to do. You have to be sure that these people are willing to do what you need them to do and that they know what they need to do by placing the necessary information in the job description.
  • Employee job descriptions help you cover all your legal bases. For example, in compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), you’ll want to make sure that the physical requirements for a particular job are accurately written in the job description. If you don’t take this into serious thought, then you could end up being faced with lawsuits that could very well ruin you and your business.
  • Whether you’re looking for external hires or internal candidates, having a good job description will inform the candidate of the exact requirements for the job. It should be able to provide a clear description of what you expect the selected employee to do. Clear employee job descriptions can help you select your preferred candidates. These can also help you address certain issues as well as questions from those people who were not selected for the position. A job analysis can be similarly useful.
  • Well-written employee job descriptions help employees within the organization and their coworkers understand the boundaries of a particular person’s responsibilities. Those people who have been involved in the hiring process are more likely to support the success of the employee that was promoted or the person that was newly hired. Developing employee job descriptions is an easy way to involve people in your organization’s success.

Overall, you need to make a job description that allows you to inform, communicate, and align performance without damaging speed, flexibility, and customer satisfaction.

Negatives

  • Employee job descriptions can quickly become dated if you write them in a changing, fast-paced, and customer-driven working environment. So you must supplement employee job descriptions with regularly negotiated goals as well as opportunities for business development, and this should be done either quarterly or even monthly. This would require the employee to meet with the boss or the team so that they can establish the next set of specific and measurable objectives. The things that are discussed at this meeting must also be realistic. If the employee is given any new goals, yet is still responsible for every task that’s listed within his or her original job description, then don’t be surprised if you’ll hear complaints stating that this is unfair. This is especially true if the goals and job accomplishments are tied to salary or bonus payouts. You need to take a look at where the employee is investing his or her time, as well as the effort required to do certain tasks. If the employee job descriptions provide a wrong picture, then you should immediately update the descriptions to be more accurate.
  • Make certain employee job descriptions have enough flexibility so individuals can work outside the box. Employee job descriptions must be flexible so that employees are comfortable performing different tasks such as cross-training, helping another team member accomplish one or more tasks, and making decisions that they believe will be able to serve customers better and increase client satisfaction. You want people to take on reasonable chances where they can stretch the limits of their capabilities since that can help your company achieve greater success.
  • Poorly-written employee job descriptions can be used as evidence of wrong-doing or wrong-telling in a wrongful termination lawsuit. This is why you have to be very careful in the event that you’re going to write a job description for your company.
  • Keep checking employee job descriptions regularly to make sure that they are still effective. In addition to regularly updating smart goals and objectives suggested above, an employee job description is an integral part of the performance management and evaluation system of the company. What this basically does is determine one’s salary increase and the bonus eligibility of an employee. It’s basically a job reference that will help determine how an employee spends his or her time at work. They provide a measurable focus for energy and attention. If it cannot even do this, then it’s best to just eliminate job descriptions as a whole.
  • Employee job descriptions should not remain unused in a drawer somewhere. They have to be used as an integral part of your hiring process. Make employee job descriptions an important part of your hiring as well as your selection process to guarantee that you employ the best possible person for the job. Use them to obtain employee ownership and support for the position as well as trace the parameters of the skills and abilities that you’re looking for in the position that you are trying to fill. When hiring employees, well-written job descriptions will definitely help you make the right choices to ensure the success of your business.

If you would like to learn more about job analyses, such as how to conduct one with a job analysis template, then you can go through our other available articles for more information.