“Je pense, donc je suis” or “Cogito ergo sum” in Latin, and “I think therefore I am” in English, is a proposition found in French philosopher René Descartes’ Discourse on Method, which, along with his other works, credited him to be called the Father of Modern Philosophy. The phrase went on to form a strong foundation of knowledge, especially in western philosophy, but since Descartes, man has sadly fallen far below the expectations of the abilities that separates him and makes him superior from other beings. Add that to an age where technology is becoming a tool for people to spew the most vile rhetoric you would ever have the displeasure of reading, and you can bet Monsieur Descartes in his grave is far from impressed. You may also see outline templates in PDF.
We exist in an era when social media and the worldwide web, in general, are used as a platform where people discuss topics and are often more than ready to give their two cents to complete strangers who have nothing to lose, thanks to the anonymity they get to enjoy. While some of what they share and write as comments are frankly genuine and thought-provoking, others are just childish and sometimes borderline pathetic, shouting for attention, taunting an author or anyone with a case that clashes with their opinion. There is no denying that it has become easier for people to open topics of discussion that would hopefully encourage logical arguments, in any platform, especially in the light of everything that is happening around the world, from politics to sports and social issues.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is defined as a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion. However, at some point, you are more than likely to hear people tell each other that arguing wouldn’t do anyone any good or that it is rude to argue and we will be better off sitting on the fence rather than bicker. Contrary to what a regular person thinks, arguing is not necessarily a shouting match or two people calling each other the ugliest names they can think of. Argumentation has existed as far back as the earliest Greek civilization when fifth-century Sophists were trying to educate people on the art of either defending or attacking a thesis through argument. You may also see essay outline templates.
Although their techniques at times met criticisms from the likes of Plato because it only highlighted debating skills for verbal displays, Gorgias, Hippias, Prodicus, Protagoras and the rest of the Sophists still made the biggest impact on bringing argumentation to the core of Greek thought. The Sophists also played a good part in the demand for moral claims to be proven and justified by reasons. The truth remains that argumentation will always be vital in the ability to think critically. The core values which the academe has been founded on would not exist without it. Without argumentation, a process of natural science would be immaterial and people would just about say yes to everything without knowing why and how if they don’t know how to argue a case or a cause, be it oral or written. You may also like persuasive essay templates.
It may come as a surprise for you to find out that you do not have to write “argument” as a reminder if you are writing something that involves argument in your academic or business task. Making an argument or expressing your stand on a specific subject with facts and evidence to back it up is mostly the goal of academic writing. Most materials handed to you by your professors in college and most reference books you read to help you with papers you have to turn in have been debated by another person, sometime in the past. Even information that is presented to be facts has probably been someone else’s interpretation of another set of information. That’s just how it is, and you may be asked to do the same, sooner than later. You may also see sample persuasive essay templates.
If you are working on an argumentative essay, it’s best to have an outline so that you will be prepared to defend your interpretation of some facts about a subject you have read about or are interested in. Since it is a writing assignment, expect to do more than just a summary because you would also have to pick a stand and defend a position with supporting evidence based on your research or interpretation. Argumentation, as one of the major methods of discourse, can be applied to almost any written work that involves critical reasoning in any area or discipline. Writing to defend a position, argue a case, and persuade an audience to agree with you involves a higher level of reasoning than writing a narrative or an exposition.
It is therefore important for anyone in business or in the academe to understand and practice the principles and the necessary critical thinking skills to be able to write a good argumentative essay. More than 2,000 ago, in his treatise “Rhetorica”, Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote one of the most important contributions in philosophy regarding argumentation, explaining that arguments become more persuasive and powerful when applied in three different but inseparable dimensions: ethos (credibility,) logos (reason,) and pathos (emotion.) He said that there are three means to persuasion: “The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions—that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.”
To this day, what Aristotle said still rings true when one wants to offer a stand and sway an audience into agreeing to his or her position. The art of persuasion in a written argument depends on whether you can prove to the reader that you are credible enough to talk about something debatable. Credibility doesn’t only mean authority. Even when you still lack credentials, your ability to defend your position with strong evidence will already say so much about your character. And, when it comes to logical reasoning, even the most seasoned lawyers and experts are guilty of committing mistakes. Other people’s arguments are often littered with illogical reasoning because of hasty generalizations and foolish attempts at sarcasm. These are fallacies, and fallacies are the very things you should avoid because they will be the death of your proposition. You may also see printable reflective essay templates.
Learn to express your expertise by avoiding the pitfalls of fallacies and vicious stereotyping. You only achieve that with supporting evidence, a good deal of research on various sources from both sides of an issue and reading. Think of a courtroom. No lawyer wins a case without substantial evidence. Stick to issues and facts because you don’t get to win arguments by spouting dishonesty and the only people you will be able to persuade either lack education on the subject or they are too emotional and sensitive not to recognize distractions from real questions. You may also see simple descriptive essay templates.
When you write, it would be good to choose a topic that is both interesting and debatable. Something that would have two sides of an argument. Make your claim and then defend it by also answering questions and not evading them. You must also be careful about argumentum ad hominem when stating your case. It happens when you suddenly appeal your argument to a crowd’s instincts and prejudices, in which case your argument would be rendered weak because instead of dealing with the real issues, you make it personal. A logical argument cannot be based on a personal and malicious attack on a character. Remember, name-calling can never be considered as a rebuttal. So, when you spot any sign of fallacy slowly taking form in your outline, remove them by any means. You may also see personal essay templates.
“Without a shadow of a doubt” is an opinion, not a fact. All too often, we think we have the divine right to always be right when it comes to our point of view that we forget we can be wrong and that as humans, we are allowed to be wrong. No person can always guarantee to make a claim of absolute truth to any issue. A person should always think with the shadow of a doubt. In the search for truth and knowledge, in any argument, it is important to always question what you know. “Dubito ergo cogito, cogito ergo sum.” Remember Descartes? “I doubt therefore I think, I think therefore I am,” because there’s another side to an argument. And your reader may have some objections that are just as valid to your proposition. Therefore, before even beginning to write your essay, anticipate the possible counterarguments and think of how you would be able to answer them, thereby developing a strong argument and making a good impression. You may also see word essay templates.
It shouldn’t take a time machine for us to remember great thinkers like Descartes in the Age of Reason or Enlightenment era or the influence such thinkers had in building a foundation of knowledge that can be tested, or their philosophies by which modern democracies have been founded on. You may also see interview essay templates.
Millennials have often been criticized for having a strong sense of entitlement that they haven’t yet earned, as well as a lack of critical thinking and apathy on certain issues worth discussing, debating and arguing. This shouldn’t discourage or stop the rest of us to do exactly what the naysayers think we can’t—to think, to doubt, and to reason logically, be it oral or written. “Dubito ergo cogito, cogito ergo sum,” and here, the case rests. You may also see informative essay templates.