Research is defined as a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to come up with new facts and also establish new conclusions. Basically, conducting a research means furthering your knowledge on a certain subject. This is made possible by answering the hypotheses formulated on the topic. When you write a research paper, you are contributing new knowledge to the community and participating in the evolution of our knowledge in this ever-changing world.
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It may sound like a tedious task, but if done right, you might find yourself enjoying the process. Research, you see, is not just some assignment you have to take on for a few months. Research is a lifestyle that you have to adopt until it eventually becomes your nature to question what you think you know, to look beyond the surface, and to discover facts that would make a difference in the world.
This article will open doors for you to help begin your journey to discovery. We will tackle everything from choosing a topic to defending your research paper in front of a panel. We want to help you adjust to the life of a researcher and we hope that somewhere along the way, you find yourself falling in love with it.
With this being said, welcome to the world of discovery and wonder, and we bid you good luck.
The most difficult part of writing a research paper . When you have no idea what to do or how to do, you find yourself struggling to squeeze words out to form coherent sentences. However, once you get in the groove, you might find the words flowing freely. In this chapter, we will discuss how you could get started in writing a research paper.
5 Tips for Preparing for Research Writing
The primary preparation is as important as the process of writing a paper. The way you prepare yourself and your environment would have a huge impact on your attitude and behavior toward writing your research. Here are some things you could do to ensure that you are well-prepared and ready to write a paper:
- Get yourself in the right mindset. When working on a research paper, it is important that your entire attention is dedicated solely to your work. Don’t work if you are hungry, lack sleep, or if your mind is clouded with personal troubles. Eat, take a short nap, or separate yourself from your problems whenever you are facing your research.
- Clear your environment of distractions. If you have a shorter attention span than normal, it would help you a lot if you could get rid of things that might take your attention away from the task at hand. Work in a quiet place with no television or games. Keep your phone on airplane or silent mode, or you can turn off notifications for text messages. Because research might require an internet connection, it is very important that you begin to practice self-discipline so that you are not distracted by social media or memes.
- Choose a topic you enjoy or are familiar with. Because research will take up a lot of your time, it is more difficult to study a topic you are not interested in. One way to make research fun is by studying a topic that you know you’d enjoy. A way to make it easier is to choose a topic you are already well-versed in.
- Create an outline of the work you want to do. It would be easier for you to work if you know what should be done after a particular topic/segment. Create an outline or to-do list of what tasks should be completed while writing your paper. This will also prevent you from having idle time where your mind might wander, tempt you, and prevent you from being productive.
- Give yourself a deadline for completing certain tasks. When you create your outline, include dates against each task at hand. Having a deadline serves as a motivator to stop wasting time and to focus on the task at hand. Getting in the right mindset is one of the most important parts of research. As mentioned earlier, research is a lifestyle. While you are in the middle of a research study, expect that you’d have to eat, sleep, and drink research.
How to Choose a Research Paper Topic
Choosing your topic and formulating your hypothesis for research is one of the most difficult tasks in writing a thesis paper. Especially when starting with a clean slate, you may feel overwhelmed with how many (or little) topics there are that you want to look into and study. Here are some things you could do to make choosing a topic a little less of a headache:
1. Brainstorm with your co-authors
If you’re writing with a group of colleagues, then it would be wise to come together and set a time specifically for brainstorming. Here is one recommended method of brainstorming in a group:
- List down your individual interests on a piece of paper.
- Gather together and compare with everyone in the group.
- Choose an interest that is similar among the members of the group.
There are many ways to procure ideas. The steps listed above are simply suggestions. Other methods include but are not limited to:
- Members of the group nominate topics and they vote on the topic to study, or
- The teacher assigns a topic for the research paper
2. Read up on your chosen topic
Now that you’ve decided what field your research paper is going to be on, you have to read as much as you possibly can on the topic. Gather textbooks, journal articles, and other materials from credible sources.
3. Find the gaps of the literature
After reading through as many related material as you can, you now have to look for questions in the literature that remain unanswered. This means that during your readings of the materials you’ve gathered, you don’t only read; you must also analyze, question, and highlight facts.
4. Gather the statements of the problem
Once you’ve figured out the gaps of the literature, it is time that you state the questions in an academic manner. A statement of the problem is a short description of the issues that your study hopes to tackle.
5. Formulate your hypothesis
A hypothesis is an educated guess. This is your answer to the issues you’ve stated based on the materials you’ve read throughout your research. This is what you would be trying to prove through the literature you’ve gathered and your experimentation.
6. Establish your scopes and limitations
The scope and limitations of your study are basically what your study covers. This means that your study will only be looking at a certain scope and is limited within that scope.
There is no doubt that choosing a topic for your research paper is going to be time-consuming. However, it is essential that you spend as much time as you need on choosing a topic as the questions you ask during your study will dictate how difficult the course of the research study might be for you and your colleagues.
Elements of a Good Research Paper
To make sure that your research paper is impressive and makes an impact in the academic community, here is the criteria it is supposed to meet:
The title page, or the cover page, includes the title of your research paper and its authors. It also states the name of your research advisers as well as the name of the institution where you’re working or studying.
The abstract of a study is an overall summary of the entire study. It is usually only about 150 words long.
The purpose of an introduction is to introduce the study. It lays the foundation for the reader and gives them a quick background on the study.
- Review of Related Literature
The review of related literature is a summary of the materials you’ve gathered and read. The material read is relevant to the subject matter of your topic. The contents of your Review of Related Literature will serve as your arguments and basis for your hypothesis.
The statement of the problem is the list of issues or gaps you have found in the literature. These are the questions that your study aims to answer.
A hypothesis is an educated guess. Your hypotheses are based on the literature you have collected. Your hypothesis, then, is what you are trying to prove.
The methodology is a detailed narrative of how you designed your entire study.
The analysis describes the statistical data of the results of the study. This shows all the numbers you’ve derived from the results of the experimentation or survey. It also show the statistical formula you used to determine the statistical significance of the study.
The discussion of the study discusses the implications of the results of the study. It describes the numbers and what they could mean for your research. It also discusses both the practical and theoretical implications of your study.
The recommendation section includes what you would recommend the readers and fellow researchers who might have taken an interest in your study.
The conclusion of your study states your final judgment on the study based on the entirety of the study.
The bibliography is the collection of all the sources of the materials and references you’ve gathered. Formatting for the bibliography depends on the kind of academic writing style you are using.
Make sure that your research paper includes every important element that is crucial and would give the reader the needed information.
Characteristics that Make a Research Paper Good
A research paper is not written just for the fun of it. A research paper requires much time, effort, and dedication. There is a certain criteria that your research paper has to meet to be considered “good.” Here are the characteristics that a research paper should ideally possess:
An empirical research is one that is based on empirical evidence. That is, an empirical study is one that is based on theories that can be observed (whether directly or indirectly) and experimented upon.
A systematic study should follow the scientific method. That is, it should follow the following steps:
When conducting an experiment, you have to make sure that there is consistency in every aspect as to be able to gather accurate results. Have a control group – who receive no treatment – and an experimental group – who receive treatment- so that you can have a point of comparison.
- Employs Quantitative or Statistical Methods
To increase its credibility, your research must be translated into numerical data and treated with statistics.
A good research study is one that addresses current issues. There is no logic in solving yesterday’s troubles when it is today’s gaps that must be filled. Find a research topic that would have an impact in today’s society.
A good research paper is one that contributes to the available literature. In other words, it should discover something new.
To ensure that you write an impressive research paper that is sure to make an impact in the field you are writing in, take note of the above-mentioned points and make sure that your study possesses the mentioned characteristics.
From the starting point, you will be facing numerous challenges throughout the process of writing your research paper. Conducting a research study is obviously no easy task. It is a rollercoaster ride of responsibilities and to-dos so best is to brace yourself and enjoy the ride.
Format Your Paper
The way you arrange your paper helps with its readability. Everything from the kind of verbs you use to the spacing of the text matter greatly. This is important as it ensures that your paper is uniformed with all others of the same field.
3 Writing Styles for Academic Writing
When writing academic papers, it is important that there is uniformity and consistency. This ensures convenience for those who will study and critique your work. There are different writing styles that would depend on the field you are researching. This is because each writing style has its own characteristics that would best fit different fields. Here are the 5 most common writing styles and how to utilise them:
Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style is commonly used in manuscripts. It is also the style of writing utilized when publishing both fiction and non-fiction books.
American Psychological Association (APA) Style
The APA Style of writing was designed and established by the American Psychological Association in hopes of minimizing the possibility of writers and authors being accused of plagiarism. This is now commonly used among research papers and reports in the fields of psychology, sociology, and other social sciences.
Modern Language Association (MLA) Style
Unlike most research paper writing styles, the MLA Style is not as stiff with their rules. The basic rule in the citation of sources in the MLA Style is that you follow this order:
- Authors’ names
- Title of the material you cited
- Title of source from where you got the material
- Year of publication
- Location of publication
A citation using MLA, would look something like:
MLA Citation Example
How to Write Your Paper Using the APA Style
The APA Style is a style of academic writing established in 1929 that authors use when submitting research papers for publication in APA journals. It aims to help researchers achieve “minimum distraction and maximum precision” for their papers.
The APA has made itself a valuable tool when writing scientific papers, reports, and research and theses papers in different fields, especially psychology, sociology, education, and other social sciences.
Here are the basic guidelines of writing with the APA style:
- Your paper should be typed in Times New Romans typeface with a 12 pt font size.
- There should be a running head on every page. A running head is a shortened version of your research paper’s title.
- Include a list of every material you cited.
- Italicize the titles of the materials you cited.
- The titles of books should be capitalized sentence style.
- In-text citations should enclose authors’ last names and the year of publication in parentheses.
The title page is the page that showcases your paper’s authors, your institutional affiliation, and the research title.
Below the title, type in the names of all the authors. The format must go as follows: first name, middle initial, the last name. You do not need to put in titles or degrees.
Remember that text must be double-spaced.
The title page of your paper might look something like:
The abstract of your research paper should be no less than 150 words and no more than 250 words. Your abstract should be left-aligned and double-spaced. The word “Abstract” is to be center-aligned, typed in a regular style, not bold.
When citing using the APA format in the text, enclose the following in a parenthesis:
- The last name of the author followed by the initials of their first and middle names.
- The year the material was published.
Ex: For your life to mean something, you have to live it yourself (Riordan, R., 2005).
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall and cannot be pieced back together (Smith, J., Black, S., Green, M., 2008).
The reference page is a list of every material, article, or book where information was used to build up your research. The reference page will be found near or at the last part of your research.
This is the general format for the reference section of an APA style-written work:
AUTHOR’S LAST NAME, FIRST INITIAL, MIDDLE INITIAL (OPTIONAL). TITLE OF WORK. PUBLISHER, PAGE NUMBERS
Smith, K. B. (2010). Components of APA citations when writing a thesis paper. The English Journal, 10-22
Sims, E. A., Schuyler, E., & Hamilton A. (1800). The birth of American politics. Journal of Political History, 32-88
7 Hacks to Make Research Writing Easier
Writing a research paper is a time-consuming job and it requires a lot of hard work. If you find yourself running short on time or if you’re looking for a way to make it through writing your research paper without as much headache, check out these life hacks:
1. Use SPSS
SPSS is a computer software you could use to do all the hard statistics stuff for you. All you have to do is input the data correctly and know what kind of statistical test you need and let SPSS do the rest for you.
2. Gather information for literature review
When gathering information for your literature review, there is no need to read the entire book or article. Simply read through the abstract and conclusion for important information.
3. Take down notes
If you choose to employ the hack mentioned in #2, you should also organize your notes well. Write down information that you think might be useful for your paper and write down the complete source. This way, if you, later on, find out that you need more information in relation to what you have, you know where the first place to look would be.
4. Use Wikipedia to look for sources, not information
Wikipedia may be the biggest no-no in the research world, but it doesn’t mean you can’t use it at all. If you find yourself short of sources to back your study, scroll down to the bottom of the Wikipedia page and gather sources from there.
Another source for information and materials is to read through the literature review of other studies. You can get ideas on what materials you might need to read.
5. Make use of hidden features
If you’re using Microsoft Word, there is an easy way to make a bibliography without having to individually type them in. Here is how you could do this:
- Click on where you want to put the citation.
- Go to the Reference tab, then to the Citations & Bibliography tab, and click Insert Citation.
- Click on ‘Add New Source’ and fill up the source information sheet.
- To make the bibliography or reference, click on Reference, then Citations & Bibliography, and click on Bibliography
6. Write the first draft by hand
Write the first draft by hand and edit as you transfer it to the computer. This will make sure you won’t be too lazy to edit.
7. Let Google read your paper
Copy-paste your paper to Google translate and let it read it out loud. You can listen to it for grammatical mistakes or any other error.
Writing Your Paper
Writing a research paper can be a very tedious process since there is a need for you to make relevant in-depth searches to give your study a better and more solid background. You also have to ensure that every statement you put in your paper seems to flow naturally with the next statements.
Making an Abstract
Research papers can be pretty lengthy. Whenever you want someone to critique your paper, they would want to have a brief yet comprehensive overview of what it is you have researched about. This is where the abstract plays an important role. You see, abstracts will give the reader a brief summary of the vital elements of your research and writing these elements should be in a sequential manner. The sequence goes like:
- The purpose of your research
- The research problem
- The methodology of the research
- The findings from the investigation and analysis
- The summary of the conclusion
Your abstract plays an essential role since this will be what the readers will see first. Should they find that your abstract is interesting, then the rest of your research will now seem interesting to them.
Before we get started with our abstract, we have to find out what type of abstract you should be writing for your audience. There are four general types of abstract:
1. Critical Abstract
Critical abstracts are not as commonly used as other types of abstracts. However, there are situations that call for its use. This type of abstract typically compares the research with other studies that is similar in nature.
2. Descriptive Abstract
Descriptive abstracts will let the readers know what is in the research except for the results and conclusions that were found through the research. It is basically just an outline of what your research is all about and it will include some of the keywords of the research.
3. Informative Abstract
The informative abstract is the most common type of abstract used for research. An informative abstract will also contain the same elements that you can find in a descriptive abstract only that this time, it will include the results and the findings of the research.
4. Highlight Abstract
When you want to make your abstract seem a little more mysterious, you can make use of a highlight abstract. There’s no need to state specifics about the study. You can make use of intriguing statements which will make your research more interesting to the reader. This type of abstract, however, is rarely used for academic research papers.
Now that you have a better grip on what the different types of abstracts are, you can now determine which type is most appropriate to use for your research.
Abstracts might seem hard to write and they certainly are since you are limited to only a few words. To make an effective research abstract, you can check out the following tips:
1. Identify and list down keywords. By listing down the important keywords from each section of your research can help to lessen the hassle of constructing the proper statements to incorporate in your abstract.
2. Arrange your statements in a sequential manner. Since the manuscript of your research is presented in sequence, it would make sense if your abstract would also be presented in the same manner.
3. Limit your abstract to one paragraph. Remember, your abstract is a summary and a very condensed version of your research. Ensure that only necessary information (see Tip 1) is included.
4. Make your statement flow. Consistency is the key to assure that your abstract makes sense.
5. Proofread-Review-Edit-Critique. It is important to avoid spellings and grammatical errors for your abstract since this is one of the first things that a reader would see on your research manuscript. It is also a good idea to have someone else review your abstract and suggest a few edits needed for the article.
6. Review your abstract one last time. The final review will serve as a method of ensuring that you are following the guidelines set for your abstract and that everything has been stated clearly.
With the help of these tips, you can now be assured that you will be able to make an abstract that is attractive and can be easily understood by the reader.
How to Write an Introduction for Your Research Paper
Just like the abstract, your introduction can be tricky to write. However, unlike the abstract, your introduction has no word limit but it needs to be brief and relative at the same time. Through the introduction, you will be able to let the reader know what your topic is all about. A good introduction will help you catch the reader’s attention by letting them know the steps that you are going to take in order to solve the problem being tackled in the research. By doing so, it will stir up the reader’s curiosity and will make him/her more interested in exploring your paper even more.
In writing your research introduction, you have to include four important elements:
The background of your study will set the tone of your research paper. This is where you state all of the relevant information based on the problem you are tackling. Through this section of your study, you give the readers the general and broad description of your study.
A good background will include:
- A rationale or the explanation as to why your research topic is deemed to be worthy and significant to the previous researches in the same field.
- Purpose or research objective which will tell the readers what you are trying to achieve by conducting your study.
- Research questions/hypothesis which are relatively feasible, clear, and significant to what your study is all about.
2. Importance of the Study
The importance of the study will give your readers the reason why you chose your particular topic. This is also where you will state whether you are conducting a new study or continuing/improving findings from a previous study. This is where you will also let your reader give a brief overview of the methods that you are going to pursue in order to achieve your objectives.
3. Limitation of the Study
Your introduction will also feature the weaknesses or limitations of your study. The limitations can either be methodological limitations or limitations of the researcher. Stating limitations to a study is not a bad thing because almost all studies have limitations. Limitations are merely just an announcement that there are certain uncontrollable constraints to your study and that you have access to a limited number of resources.
Assumptions are typically made in research to aid in creating excellent theories and research instruments that you can actually use. An example would be cases of research that use the survey approach, one perfect example of an assumption made is that all responses made by the participants are truthful and accurate.
Introductions are meant to be written in a manner that will arouse the interest of the reader. To effectively do this, remember the following:
Be brief and concise about your introduction. To avoid long and irrelevant rambles on your introduction, be sure to make an outline and stick to it.
End your introduction with the statement of the problem. By doing so, you will be able to let the reader know exactly what your objectives for your research are. It will also be easier to refer back to the introduction and see if your discussion and conclusion are in line with your problem.
Adjust your introduction accordingly. Even though you have made an outline, your paper might still come out slightly different than expected. Read through your introduction and make sure that all statement flows smoothly and are coherent with each other.
To give your research more backbone, you have to consider making extensive research about relevant and scholarly articles to incorporate. This is where your review of related literature comes in. A review of the related literature (RRL) is a compilation of all the relevant sources that is related to your research topic. It helps to mold your research and solidify your findings as it provides a good foundation to your research problem.
To get started on your review of related literature, you can follow these eight steps:
1. Follow the recommended writing style. Ensure that you are able to follow the correct guidelines according to the writing style that you want to follow. Familiarize yourself with the core elements of the chosen writing style.
2. Choose a topic. This will help to narrow down what you need to research and make it more specific. It will help to make the writing of your RRL easier.
3. Identify what literature to review. Look for literature that is relevant to the study you are conducting. There are two types of sources for your RRL:
1. Primary sources. which will provide information that is considered to be firsthand such as:
- Other scholarly write-ups which provide a good source for methodologies, descriptions, and relevant conclusions.
2. Secondary sources. are sources that provide data that is not original or write ups that are written about the primary sources such as:
As you go on with your search for literature to use for your study, you may need to redefine and re-evaluate your topic. This is because you will be able to find out whether your chosen topic is too broad or otherwise. You may adjust accordingly with the literature you have searched. Remember to also take note of your sources as you need to cite these in the bibliography of your paper.
4. Analyze the literature you have chosen. Once you have chosen the literature you have chosen, you may quickly read through the articles. If available, you may choose to just skim through the article’s abstract and introduction to see if the literature is in line with the topic you are conducting.
As you start analyzing the literature for your study, you may find that organizing your literature can help to make your RRL more sense. You can organize your literature four ways. These four are the following:
- Chronological method organizing your literature according to the date that they were published. It is best to organize your literature in this manner if it is clear that you are building upon research that follows the same trend as your topic.
- Conceptual categories or arranging them according to the topic of the literature. A literature review arranged in this manner typically shifts chronologically according to a theme of the topics.
- Methodological approach or an organizing approach that arranges the literature articles according to the methodological approach of the researcher.
5. Make a summary of your researched literature. You can do this by making a table or a concept map. An RRL can seem too overwhelming to read so it is important to make a summary of the following:
- Terms and concepts and their definition
- Methodologies used
- Research results
This gives your reader a better understanding of what you are trying to build up with your research. Make sure that when you make a table or concept map, include a brief analysis and summary of the literature you have presented in the table.
6. Synthesize the review before writing it. Make a simple outline of what you are going to write in your review. In making a synthesis, make sure you have an outline to develop an outstanding review of the literature. Make necessary adjustments to your review as you go along such as reorganizing according to what sounds right and properly discuss the literature and how these are related or how it solidifies your research.
7. Start writing your review.
- Present the evidence. When you present your literature, make sure to emphasize the evidence to ensure that what you are stating in your literature review is valid and accurate.
- Select the strong points of the review. Highlight these strong points and ensure to explain how these are related to your review.
- Make it unique and write in your own voice. Present the information of the author in your own words. Quoting can be done for author’s ideas that cannot be easily paraphrased, written in your words, or if you want to make a strong point.
8. Develop your essay and consider getting feedback. Once you have done writing your essay, review it to make sure that it is coherent and is proving to be a good backup for your study. Get feedback from other people and ask for a good critique to ensure that you are able to make the necessary changes before you submit your research manuscript.
The RRL of your study will be a complex write up as this is the part that might constantly need revision. This is because you need to make sure that what you mention as a backup for your study makes sense and is accurately relevant to your study.
4 Things to Consider When Choosing a Research Design
There are certain aspects of the research that you need to consider in developing your research design. This is to ensure that you are will be able to design a methodology and instrument that will be able to get the most accurate research findings. To make a great research design, consider the following aspects:
1. Population. You need to make sure that you know who is going to be the focus of your study.
2. Timeline. Consider how long the research is going to take. This will help you in designing a research methodology that will seem fit for the time period that you have set. It also helps to avoid delays and help to make the needed adjustments.
3. Quantitative/Qualitative Research. Evaluate how you want your research to be:
- Quantitative or a research that analyzes statistical information; or
- Qualitative or a research that involves open-ended questions or will gather information that is unmeasurable or cannot be counted.
4. Reliability. A research will be considered valid and accurate if the occurrence of the result is similar. This is why it is important to make a research design that can be easily repeated or replicated by a different set of researchers.
Writing Your Research Paper’s Methodology
Your methodology is the part of your paper where you will let the readers know the steps that you followed in order to come up with the results of your research. This part of the paper helps your readers replicate the steps that you have taken in order to come up with the results of your research. With this, the reader is able to evaluate whether the research is considered to be valid or otherwise.
There are two main groups of methodology. These are:
1. Empirical-analytical approach which makes use of research tools that are objective in nature. This approach also makes use of deductive reasoning or an analysis that is based on theories that are already existing.
2. Interpretative approach which focuses more on subjective analysis and ensures an interpretation of the gathered data in a careful manner.
In order to make an effective research methodology, you must take note of the following tips:
1. Let your reader know what methodological approach you are using and how it fits your research. You need to make sure that your methods are relevant to the design of your research and will properly address the research problem.
2. Indicate the methods you will undertake. Specify what instruments you will be using. This includes interviews, questionnaires, and surveys.
3. Describe how you plan on analyzing the data you have gathered. Are you going to use statistical tools or an objective type of analysis for behaviors? You may also indicate the relationships and contradictions that you have found.
4. Ensure that your methods are clearly stated. Your reader might not be very familiar with your approach so it is important to let them know why you have decided to take after such methods.
5. Let them know how you have come up with your subject and the method used for your sampling. Show the reader by providing a detailed explanation or computation.
6. Reiterate any limitation related to the collection of data. It is always best to let your reader know that there are circumstances that may limit the methods you are using. Be open to your reader about this.
Once you have all the necessary elements for a good methodology, organize your data in chronological order to ensure that the reader will be able to easily replicate and verify the results. It is also advised that your methodology chapter is succinct and straight to the point to avoid confusion.
3 Easy Steps for Writing a Strong Conclusion
You have now come to the end of the paper. It is time to start writing a well-written conclusion in order to let your reader know why your study matters even after they have finished reading it. Your introduction is the first impression and, as important it is to make a good first impression, a strong last impression also matters. Your conclusion will be the last chance you have when it comes to reaching out to your reader so it is best that you state your main point in a way that will be embedded in the mind of your reader for a long time.
In order to write a good and strong conclusion, you may take after the following tips:
1. A strong conclusion starts with a strong opening statement. Your reader already knows that what they are reading is already about to end. Instead of stating the obvious and including the phrases “To conclude,” “In summary,” or other phrases that suggest that it is a conclusion, use phrases that reiterate about the arguments and main idea. When it comes to restating phrases in your conclusion, present it in a unique and creative manner.
2. Summarize the strong points of your research paper. Just reiterate the pieces of evidence and write down what you found out from conducting the research. Make a synthesis of the key points and point out why your findings are deemed to be significant. Your conclusion is meant to give your reader a new insight and not new information. Should you have found new information about the research, it is best to present these in the appropriate parts of the paper.
3. A lasting impression is a good way to end your research paper. Thought-provoking statements are best as these help to make your readers remember what you have presented to them in your manuscript. You can also state in this part of your paper how different the results would have been if the constraints were lesser or if a different methodology was followed.
With the help of your research conclusion, you will be able to demonstrate that you thoroughly understand the process and the methods that you have followed. It is also where you will describe the value of your study and how it will be able to contribute to possible future insights.
The Final Touches
Often, writing a research paper does not end at this point. There is still the oral presentation of your findings and the oral defense of your entire paper. Usually, the defense of your paper has a heavy impact on whether or not your research is a success and will be accepted by the academic community.
How to Make Your Research Presentation
Your research presentation is the PowerPoint presentation that would serve as a visual guide for your audience as you give your oral presentation.
The aims of a research presentation is:
- To share with the audience about the findings of your work
- To get the audience interested in your research paper
- To encourage feedback and questions that could further strengthen your research
The aims of your presentation are just one of many factors to keep in mind in order to capture the interest of your audience and achieve the purpose of your presentation. When creating your presentation, here are some general guidelines you might want to keep in mind:
- Don’t beat around the bush. Your presentation should last for seven minutes, at most.
- Don’t exceed ten slides.
- Speak clearly and confidently.
The kind of background that you choose for your presentation could make a big difference for your presentation. It could either give your audience the impression that not enough effort was exerted into the creation of the presentation or it could steal away the audience’s attention. When choosing a background photo for your presentation, take a note of these tips:
Use the same background throughout the entire presentation.
- If you don’t want use the same background, at least choose similar backgrounds or backgrounds with the same color scheme.
- Use backgrounds that will not distract the audience.
- Use backgrounds that will not affect the readability of the text.
The typeface, size, and color that you choose to employ for your presentation could make as much impact as your background. Here are the guidelines for choosing a font for your research:
- Choose a font color that contrasts your background nicely.
- Use color to emphasize a word and point out connections between concepts.
- Avoid using too large a font size that it takes up the whole screen.
- At the same time, don’t use too little a font size that viewers have to strain themselves to see.
- The ideal font size is 44 pt for the title and 22 pt for the body of the slide.
- Use a typeface that is legible. Serif typefaces are most preferable. Avoid typefaces that are too complex and decorative.
- Use the same typeface throughout the entire presentation.
The most important part of your presentation is its content. It is essential that what you write down in your presentation will capture the interest of your audience and not drive them away. These are the general rules of what your slide should contain:
- Use phrases and words, don’t use entire paragraphs.
- Make sure that what you are putting on your slide are only main points or keywords; not the entire speech.
Parts of the Presentation
Your presentation is not meant to be a projected version of your paper. The presentation should only contain main points and keywords to aid you during our presentation and act as a visual guide for your audience so they may follow your train of thoughts. Ideally, these are the parts of a PowerPoint presentation for a research paper:
- Quick run through of your review of related literature
- Statement of the Problem
- Statistical Analysis
- Practical and Theoretical Implications
5 Tips for Defending Your Research
One of the most nerve-wracking parts of writing a research paper is the end of it: when you stand in front of a panel of experts and present your study. They will critique it, question it, and sometimes, their feedback might even hurt you!
However, you don’t have to be a lawyer or an eloquent public speaker to be able to successfully defend your paper in front of the panel. Here are some tips that could help you survive the oral defense of your paper:
1. Speak confidently
As far as everyone else is concerned, you are the expert in the room.As you are the one who spent all that time you did researching, studying, and learning about the topic, so, you must talk in the same manner. Speak with conviction, expressing that you do know what you’re talking about.
2. Know your topic
Read your research paper the night before the presentation. Know all the ins and outs of your paper. You don’t have to memorize the entire paper, but if you know what information is under which chapter, it will not just help but also give the panel the impression that you certainly do know everything about your topic.
3. List down possible questions
As you read your own research paper, you should identify what the possible questions the panelists might ask you. List these down and try to formulate answers for them.
4. Start and end your presentation memorably
Due to the primacy and recency effect, the way you begin and end your presentation might have a huge impact on your audience. Begin by making the introduction relatable and human. End the presentation with the impact your study could have and what contributions your study could make to the academic community and to real life.
Practice in front of a mirror on how you should speak and how long you should spend per slide. Use a stopwatch to time yourself. Remember that most humans are not blessed with long attention spans, so try to limit your presentation to 7-10 minutes long only.
The presentation of your research paper could have a huge impact on your grade as a student or the publication of your paper as a researcher. While the paper itself might be very important, the success or failure of your study depends largely on how well you perform during the oral defence.
Templates and Samples
One of the best ways to know if you’re doing things right is by using samples and templates as your guide. These are tools that would make your work a lot easier and way more precise than before.
In this chapter, you will find the best of every sample and template you will ever need in relation to writing a research paper and presenting your findings to a panel or audience.
Samples of Research Papers in PDF and in DOC
When writing a research paper, it is important to get every part of the paper right and in place. Everything from your paper’s title page all the way to the references should be in the right order for it to even be considered credible.
These research samples in PDF would help you scan through completed research papers and their parts to give you ideas on what each part of a research paper should contain. These samples come in either the PDF format or a DOC format.
Research Paper Example in PDF
Business School Research Paper
Career Research Paper
Library Research Paper
Research Paper Example in DOC
Research Paper in PDF Format
Biological Research Papers
Research Paper Outline
With the PDF samples, you should be able to sync the file on any device for convenient reading. Most PDF viewers would even allow you to highlight sections or bookmark pages.
The .doc-formatted files, on the other hand, can be opened with any compatible software; though you can expect it to not look similar on different platforms. These files are editable, so you can simply delete the bodies of each part of the files for a bare skeleton of the parts of the paper and for quicker composition.
Reading through accomplished samples of research papers should be able to give you an idea on what you have to do when it comes to your paper and how you could possibly do them. With these samples, you can determine the writing style that the authors used, their tone of writing, and the kind of research they had to do to write their papers.
Samples of Research Papers in APA Format
The American Psychological Association created a format that reduces the risk of writers being accused of plagiarism while also making the paper consistent, convenient, and easy to read and navigate. Today, that format – called the American Psychological Association Style or APA Format – is the most commonly used writing style when writing for academic purposes.
Due to the many rules and guidelines that have to be undertaken when writing in the APA style, it does take a lot of time to get hang of the skill. However, with the right guide and instructions, it shouldn’t be too hard to get into the style.
Sample APA Research Paper
Mirano APA Research Paper
APA Format Research Paper
Simple Research Paper
Outline Research Paper
Research Paper in APA Style
Research APA Format Example
Sample APA for Students
With these APA Style research paper samples, you should be able to get the gist of the dos and donts of writing a paper in the famous academic writing style.
MLA Format Research Paper Samples
The Modern Language Association writing style is a lot less rigid than most other structured academic styles in writing. Despite its flexibility, there are still rules that the MLA has established, especially when it comes to citations and the bibliography.
Sample MLA Research Paper
MLA Format Outline Research Paper
MLA Style Research Paper Example
Faculty MLA Research Paper
Simple MLA Research Paper
MLA Research Paper Format Template
MLA Research Paper in Word
MLA Science Research Paper
MLA Research Paper in Word
Despite how easy it might sound to employ the MLA Style of writing, there is still a certain criteria that the style requires. Read through these research papers that are written in the Modern Language Association Style to know what kind of tone and sentence structure you would need to adopt.
The abstract of a research paper serves as some sort of extremely condensed version of the entire paper. An abstract is typically only 150-250 words long and should include:
- a quick introduction,
- the purpose of your study,
- your methodology; and
- the results and discussion of your study.
Upon the completion of your research paper, an abstract is not that difficult to write. The challenge is compressing all the information you’ve gathered in a paragraph or less. These abstract samples should give you an idea on how to compose your abstract.
Sample Abstract Example
Educational Research Abstract
Example of Research Abstract
One Page Abstract
Hospitality Abstract Research Paper
Science Abstract Research
Abstract Guide Research Paper
Medical Education Abstract
Research Paper Abstract Template
These abstract samples can help you identify the information that should be included in an abstract.
Research Paper Introduction Samples
The introduction of your research paper sets the foundation of your study for your readers. It shows a background of your study and tells the reader how you came to the idea of the topic of your study.
Research Paper Introduction Example
Qualitative Research Introduction
Cross Cultural Research
Phenomenological Research Introduction
Sample Research Paper Introduction
Educational Research Paper
Sample Science Research Paper Introduction
Research Paper Guide Format
These introduction samples would help you figure out how to set the tone for your introduction. Because the introduction is the first thing that readers would read in the the study, it is generally one of the first reasons to break or build the interest.
Simple Research Paper Presentation Templates
Upon the submission of your research paper, there is yet one more huddle to jump over. The presentation of your research paper has just as big an impact as your paper itself. The slides for the presentation of your paper will serve as some sort of visual guide that will help your audience follow your thoughts as you discuss them. These research presentation templates are an easy way to create a simple research presentation for your study:
Student Research Paper Presentation
Sample Research Paper Presentation
General Research Paper Presentation
College Research Paper Presentation
Medicine Research Paper
Academic Research Paper
MLA Style Research Paper
Outline Research Paper
Mini Research Paper
Teacher Research Paper
High School Research Paper
Multigenre Research Paper
These templates are minimalistic, simple designs that would not take any of the attention away from the contents of the slides. These are the best simple template designs that you could customize and make your own.
Creative Research Paper Presentation Templates
While studies in more conventional fields might call for simple and professional presentation slides, research presentations for more creative disciplines call for designs that have more artistic impact on them. These presentation slides templates have more color, sparkle, graphics, and creativity put into them:
Creative Research Paper
Quality Research Paper
Creative Research Outline Paper
Social Science Research Paper
Sample Outline Research Paper
Revised Research Paper
Computer Research Paper
These templates are among the best and most impressive that you could find online for free. Each have the potential to wow your audience and would surely color your presentation well.
Formal Title Page Templates
Disciplines like business administration, medicine, law, and science require a title page that reflect the strict structure of the fields. Thus, researches under these fields almost always require a formal title page. These templates would make it easy for you to fill in the blanks and you are good to go with the title page of your research paper.
Example Title Page
Business Report Title Page
Sample Medical Title Page
Sample Term Paper Title Page
MLA Title Page Format
Formal Title Page Template
Example of APA Title Page
Sample Thesis Title Page
Dissertation Title Page Template
Short Title Page
Doctoral Title Page
Research Title Page Format
Student Title Page
School Format Title Page
Professional Title Page
Research Proposal Title Page
These title page templates are all formal and designed with the academic setting in mind. There are different designs set for different fields of research. You could simply download the templates and fill in the blanks.
Creative Title Page Templates
For fields that require more creativity and artistic abilities, creative title pages might be able to demonstrate your eye for design and art. These title page templates that we’ve gathered for you are among the most inspiring, colorful, and impressive.
Doctoral Thesis Title Page
Informal APA Title Page
Sample Title Page
Creative Title Page Style Format
Thesis Title Page Example
Title Page for Graduation School
Student Paper Title Page
Policy Paper Title Page
Title Page Template for Biology
MS Title Page
Journal Title Page Template
Lab Title Page
CSE Title Page
Thesis Sample Title Page
These creative title page templates are highly editable and customizable. You can also use them as inspiration when designing your own creative title page.
These templates and samples are not going to make paper writing an easy task, but they can definitely serve as a guide for you.
A research paper is a long journey of discovery. When writing a research paper, there is a certain lifestyle that you must adopt. Everything from creating the title page to presenting and defending your study in front of a panel or academic community requires your effort and dedication. I hope that all the tips, guidelines, and templates we’ve put together, help you in making your journey significantly easier.